Part I
Constitutional Foundations

3. European Law: Nature – Direct Effect  


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  • Case 6/68 Zuckerfabrik
    Case 6/68 Zuckerfabrik Zuckerfabrik Watenstedt GmbH v Council of the European [Union] (1968); Direct effect, regulation, legal effect of measures adopted by an institutionFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case 9/70 Grad
    Case 9/70 Franz Grad v Finanzamt Traunstein (1970); direct effect, measures adopted by an institution, direct effect, the right of individuals to invoke before courts of lawFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case 2/74 Reyners
    Case 2/74 Reyners v Belgium (1974); Direct effect, preliminary ruling, free movement of services, right of establishmentFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case 41/74 Van Duyn
    Case 41/74 Van Duyn v Home Office (1975); Direct effect, refused entry, Scientology, free movement of workersFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case 43/75 Defrenne
    Case 43/75 Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) (1976); [1976] ECR 455; direct effect, European Social Charter, sex discriminationFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case 270/80 Polydor v Harlequin
    Case 270/80 Polydor Ltd and RSO Records Inc. v Harlequin Record Shops Ltd and Simons Records Ltd; Direct effect, interpretation of Treaty provisions, importation of gramophone and records from Portugal to UKFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case 14/83 Von Colson
    Case 14/83 Von COlson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (1984); Direct effect, conflict of law between MS and EU lawFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case 152/84 Marshall
    Case 152/84 Marshall v Southampton and South West Hampshire Area Health Authority (1986) ECR 723; Direct effect, dismissal of employment, Equal Treatment Directive 1976Full Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-188/89 Foster
    Case C-188/89 Foster v British Gas Plc (1990); [1991] 2 AC 306; Dirct effect, organs of the State, private/public sectorFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-192/89 Sevince
    Case C-192/89 S. Z. Sevince v Staatssecretaris van Justitie (1990) I-03461; Direct effect, preliminary ruling, decisions of the EC-Turkey Association CouncilFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case C-91/92 Faccini Dori
    Case C-91/92 Paola Faccini Dori v Recreb Srl (1994) ECR I-03325; Direct effect, consumer protectionFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-32/93 Webb
    Case C-32/93 Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 2) (1994) ECR I-3567; Direct effect, discrimination against a pregnant womanFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case C-280/93 Germany v Council (Bananas)
    Case C-280/93 Federal Republic of Germany v Council of the European Union (Bananas) (1994) ECR I-04973; Direct effect, importation, common organisation of the marketsFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case C-194/94 CIA Security
    Not yet Lisbonised; Case C-194/94 CIA Security International SA v Signalson SA and Securitel SPRL (1996) ECR I-02201; direct effect, technical standards and regulationsFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-368/95 Familiapress v Bauer
    Case C-368/95 Vereinigte Familiapress Zeitungsverlags-und vertriebs GmbH v Heinrich Bauer Verlag (1997) ECR I-3709; Direct effect, free movement of goods, quantitative restrictions (measures having equivalent effect)Full Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-149/96 Portugal v Council
    Case C-149/96 Portugese Republic v Council of the European Union (1999) ECR I-8425; Direct effect, market access for textile productsFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-403/98 Azienda Agricola
    Case C-403/98 Azienda Agricola Monte Arcosu Srl v Regione Autonoma della Sardegna and Organismo Comprensoriale No 24 della Sardegna and Ente Regionale per l'Assistenza Tecnica in Agricoltura (ERSAT) (2001) ECR I-121; Direct EffectFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-443/98 Unilever Italia
    Case C-443/98 Unilever Italia SpA v Central Food SpA (2000) ECR I-07535; Direct effect; technical standards and regulationsFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • Case C-438/00 Deutscher Handallbund eV v Kolpak
    Case C-438/00 Deutscher Apothekerverband eV v 0800 DocMorris NV and Jacques Waterval (2003) ECR I-14887; Direct effect, internet sales of medical productsFull Lisbonised Judgment
  • Case C-144/04 Mangold
    Case C-144/04 Mangold v Helm (2005); Direct effect, employment, horizontal direct effect, age discriminationFull Lisbonised Judgment
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  • C-148-78 Ratti 1979
    Case C-148/78 Ratti [1979] Facts: Ratti represented an undertaking that decided to package its solvents and to affix to the container labels conforming to two Directives not yet incorporated into the Italian legal system, one of them because Italy had not fulfilled its obligation of incorporation on time, the other one because the period prescribed…Short summary
  • C-118-00 Larsy
    Case C-118/00 Larsy [2001] Facts: Mr Larsy was a self-employed nursery gardener in Belgium and France, established near the border in Belgium. He contested the government’s decision to reduce his pension entitlement, because the government found he was also awarded a retirement pension in France. The Labour Tribunal initially dismissed his action, but Mr Larsy’s…Short summary
  • C-36-74 Walrave
    Case C-36/74 Walrave [1974] Facts: Mr Walrave and Mr Koch, Dutch nationals who offered their services for remuneration to act as pacemakers on motorcycles in cycle races with so-called stayers, brought an action against the provision in the rules for world championships of the Union Cycliste Internationale according to which from the year 1973 the…Short summary